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History

HISTORY

1831
The future German Emperor and King of Prussia Friedrich III was born as Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl on 18 October at Neues Palais in Potsdam. He is the only son of Prince Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig of Prussia, later King of Prussia and even later first German Emperor, and whose wife Augusta.

1840
On 21 November, Victoria was born as first child of Victoria, Queen of England and her husband Albert, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha at Kensington Castle. On 10 February 1841 she is christened under the name of Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom.

1851
On the occasion of the opening of the Great Exhibiton twenty-year-old Prince Friedrich encounters eleven-year-old Princess Royal Victoria for the first time. In 1853 they meet again and on 7 July, the Prince’s date of departure, she addicts a drawing to him as farewell.

1855
Third time is a charm: in September Friedrich visits Victoria in England and their engagement is announced. Victoria participates with some of her own drawings in an auction for charitable objectives.

1856
On the 20th of March, Princess Victoria has been confirmed at the chapel of Windsor Castle.

1857
On 16 May, the engagement of Prince Friedrich of Prussia and Princess Royal Victoria is announced officially. Because of the mental disease of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV, his brother Prince Wilhelm, Friedrich’s father, assumes regency on 7 October.

1858
At the request of Queen Victoria, the wedding took place on the 25th of January in the Royal Chapel of the St. Jame’s Palace. On 8th February, the triumphal procession of the young couple ends with a jubilating reception and a dinner in the Royal Castle in Berlin.

1859
On the 27th of January Prince Wilhelm was born as first child of the Crown Prince couple. Because of an ungentle delivery its left shoulder and arm remain handicapped.

1860
On 24 of July Princess Charlotte were born as second child and first daughter.

1861
King Friedrich Wilhelm IV dies on 2 January.
On 14 July, the student Oscar Becker assaults Wilhelm, the designated King, in Baden-Baden. On 18 October, the day of his accession, he is the first of the House of Hohenzollern who celebrates his coronation in the presence of alien monarchs. The now so-called Crown Prince Friedrich renders homage to his father with a kiss on the hand.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, The Prince Consort and father of Princess Royal, Crown Princess Victoria dies on 14 December in Windsor Castle.

1862
On 14 of August Prince Heinrich, the second son of the Crone Prince couple, was born in the Neuen Palais.
Otto von Bismarck became prime minister of Prussia.

1863
Bismarck’s press ordinance meets with popular outrage. Crown Prince Friedrich, present in Danzig at that time, criticises this constriction of the freedom of the press – thereby he officially takes a firm stand against his father.

1864
The war of the Austrian-Prussian alliance against Denmark. Birth of the fourth child and third son Prince Sigismund on 15 September.

1866
Prussia declares war to Austria. Crown Prince Friedrich leads the Second Prussian Battalion as supreme commander. On 12 April, Victoria, his and Crown Princess Victoria’s fifth child and second daughter, is born. Some weeks later, on 18 June, Prince Sigismund dies of meningitis.

1867
The International Exposition, a world’s fair actually called “exposition universelle d’art et d’industrie” opens in Paris. The Prussian state government acquires works as cadre of the newly established German Museum of Crafts in Berlin, since 1879 called Museum for Arts and Crafts.

1868
After the early death of nearly two-year-old Prince Sigismund two years before, Crown Princess Victoria takes comfort from the birth of the sixth child and fourth son Prince Waldemar on 10 February.

1869
Opening of the Suez Canal in the presence of Crown Prince Friedrich among other dignitaries. Later on, he publishes his impressions of this historic event entitled “Tagebuch meiner Reise nach dem Morgenlande“.

1870
Princess Sophie, seventh child and third daughter, was born on 14 June. One month later the French Empire declares war to Prussia. Crown Prince Friedrich achieves military fame based on the battles of Weißenburg and Wörth. Victoria, who stays at Bad Homburg, takes care for medical supply at the Rhine.

1871
Proclamation of the German Empire on 18 January in Versailles. Despite his concerns King Wilhelm of Prussia takes the title Wilhelm I, Emperor of the German Reich.

1872
On 22 April, Princess Margarethe was born as eighth child and fourth daughter – Queen Margarete from Italy arrives for the christening in Potsdam as godmother.

1875
The fancy dress party “Am Hofe der Medicäer in Florenz” on 8 February at Kronprinzenpalais in Berlin is the glorious height of numerous court festivals on which the Berlin Society gets together.
The art collector Ferdinand Robert-Tornow dies on 13 September – he bequeaths his daughter his exquisite art collection.

1876
Emperor Wilhelm I and Queen Victoria from England met in Coburg. In the same year Queen Victoria gets the title “Empress of India”.

1878
Charlotte, the oldest daughter, marries Bernhard III, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen on 18 February 1878 – Bernhard will govern Saxe-Meiningen from 1914 until his abdication in 1918.
Second attack on Emperor Wilhelm I on 11 May. Because of severe injuries by a third attack just three weeks later he declares Crown Prince Friedrich as his deputy. Alice, the Crown Princess’s younger sister and by marriage Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine dies of diphtheria.

1879
For the second time the Crown Prince and Crown Princess lose a child. Prince Waldemar dies on 27 March on diphtheria too.
Emperor Wilhelm I and Empress Augusta celebrate golden wedding.

1881
On 27 February, Prince Wilhelm, the future Emperor Wilhelm II, marries the daughter of the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, Princess Auguste Victoria.
As birthday present to the Crown Princess, a magnificent building for the Museum of Arts and Crafts, created by Martin Gropius, is inaugurated in Prinz Albrecht-Straße in Berlin on 21 November.

1883
The silver wedding of the Crown Prince and Crown Princess is celebrated on 25 January. The donations inure to the benefit of charitable foundations.
Voyage of the Crown Prince to Spain and India.

1886
In autumn, first signs of a laryngeal disease occurs to the Crown Prince.

1887
The diseased Crown Prince Friedrich travels to England on the occasion of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, his mother-in-law. The graveness of his disease is detected – he and Crown Princess Victoria refuse an operation.

1888
A tracheotomy saves the life of Crown Prince Friedrich.
Death of nearly 91-year-old Emperor Wilhelm I on 9 March and enthronement of his son, who takes the name Friedrich III.
On 15 June Emperor Friedrich III dies after only 99 days of reign.
His first son, Wilhelm, takes the governance as Emperor Wilhelm II.
Death of Countess Gallieras on 9 December in Paris. Princess Royal Victoria, now widely known as Empress Friedrich, is beneficiary of a part of the ducal asset.
Conclusion of the sales contract of Villa Schönberg in Kronberg on 28 September.

1889
Commencement of Schloß Friedrichshof.
Wedding of Princess Sofie and Prince Konstantin, the later King of Greece, on 27 October.

1890
Death of Empress Augusta, the widow of Emperor Wilhelm I and grandmother of Emperor Wilhelm II.
Due to differences with Emperor Wilhelm II concerning the authorities of department ministers, Bismarck hands in his resignation.
Wedding of Princess Victoria and Prince Adolf of Schaumburg-Lippe on 19 November in Berlin.

1891
Emperor Wilhelm II presents his mother with the Old Castle of Kronberg.

1893
Wedding of Princess Margarethe and Prince Friedrich Karl von Hessen on the 25th of January.

1894
Empress Friedrich moves into the new built Schloß Friedrichshof in Kronberg for her first summer stay.

1896
The twins Prince Phillipp and Wolfgang of Hesse were born at Schloß Rumpenheim. Empress Friedrich agrees to be godmother of her daughter Margarethe’s children.

1897
Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria.
Empress Friedrich feels a bit under the weather and avoids the travel to England to join in the ceremonies in her mother’s honor.

1898
Implications of a riding accident trouble the Empress.
English doctors make a diagnosis of cancer.

1899
Prof. Renvers in Berlin confirms the findings of his English colleagues.

1900
Family reunion at Schloß Friedrichshof on the occasion of the 82nd anniversary of Queen Victoria on 24 May. Death of Empress Friedrich’s brother Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 31 July.

1901
Death of Queen Victoria on 22 January.
Death of her daughter Empress Friedrich on 5 August at Schloß Friedrichshof. After a memorial service in John’s Church in Kronberg, the coffin is carried to Potsdam and entombed at the mausoleum.

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